Flint Adolescent Study

Flint Adolescent Study

Description

1994-1999

The Flint Adolescent Study (FAS) is an ongoing interview study beginning with 850 ninth graders conducted in collaboration with Flint Community Schools. In order to study those students most at risk for leaving school before graduation, individuals with grade point averages of 3.0 and below were selected. The original goal of the study was to explore the protective factors associated with school dropout and alcohol and substance use. Students were sampled from the four main public high schools in Flint, Michigan. The study followed youth across their four high school years. We obtained a 90% response rate from Year 1 to Year 4. The Year 1 sample includes 679 African-American youth (80%), 145 white youth (17%) and 26 mixed African-American and white youth (3%). We had an even distribution between males and females. The sample reflected the overall student body in the Flint High Schools in the Fall of 1994.

2000-2005

We continued to follow the original sample for another four years as they transitioned from adolescence into young adulthood (Year 5 to Year 8). The goal of the follow-up study was to examine the effects of adolescent alcohol and drug use on marriage and family formation, educational achievement, employment, and other health-related indicators such as psychological well-being and community involvement. We obtained a 68% response rate over all eight years.

2007-2012

In 2007, we were funded to collect data for another four years. Now in their mid-twenties, we applied a socioecological life span model to the study of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence as study participants experience the middle adult transition period. We studied risk and promotive factors associated with drug abuse and dependence with a focus on life-stress, positive and negative influences from others, social capital and integration, and coping strategies. We measured

  • social factors such as support from family and friends, behavioral influences from others, participation in voluntary organizations;
  • individual level factors such as anxiety, depression, self-worth, ethnic identity, and anti-social behavior; and
  • adult transitional factors such as marriage and family relationships, child bearing including parenting, and employment issues including type of job, job qualities, and history.

We also studied neighborhood contextual influences by linking our data to Census tract information and other secondary data sources.

Information obtained from youth across the years includes:

  • participation in church, school and community organizations
  • social support and influence of family and friends (including mentoring)
  • self-esteem, stress and psychological well being
  • delinquent and violent behaviors; alcohol and substance abuse
  • sex behaviors and child bearing
  • school attitudes and performance
  • family structure and relationships
  • driving behavior (beginning in Years 3 & 4)
  • racial identity (beginning in Year 3)
  • marriage, parenting, and post-secondary education (beginning in Year 5)

Now in their 30’s, many of the original FAS participants have children of their own, and are participating in the follow up FAS Generation 2 study.

Journal Articles

In Press

Hope, M. O., Lee, D. B., Hsieh, H.-F., Hurd, N. M., Sparks, H. L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2019). Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk Behaviors for African American Adolescent Girls: The Protective Role of Natural Mentorship and Organizational Religious Involvement. American Journal of Community Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12341
Lee, D. B., Assari, S., Miller, A. L., Hsieh, H.-F., Heinze, J. E., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2019). Positive Parenting Moderates the Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Executive Functioning: A Three-Generation Approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01411-x
Assari, S., Mistry, R., Lee, D. B., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2019). Perceived Racial Discrimination and Marijuana Use a Decade Later; Gender Differences Among Black Youth. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00078
Lee, D. B., Hope, M. O., Heinze, J. E., Cunningham, M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Psychological pathway from racial discrimination to the physical consequences of alcohol consumption: Religious coping as a protective factor. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 0(0), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2018.1540956
Lee, D. B., Heinze, J. E., Neblett, E. W., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Trajectories of Racial Discrimination That Predict Problematic Alcohol Use Among African American Emerging Adults. Emerging Adulthood, 6(5), 347–357. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696817739022
Lee, D. B., Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Peckins, M. K., Goldstick, J. E., Hsieh, H.-F., … Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Racial discrimination and cortisol in African American emerging adults: The role of neighborhood racial composition. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(4), 521–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000217
Eisman, A. B., Lee, D. B., Hsieh, H.-F., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). More Than Just Keeping Busy: The Protective Effects of Organized Activity Participation on Violence and Substance Use Among Urban Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(10), 2231–2242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0868-8
Varela, J. J., Zimmerman, M. A., Ryan, A. M., Stoddard, S. A., & Heinze, J. E. (2018). School Attachment and Violent Attitudes Preventing Future Violent Behavior Among Youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 886260518800314. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518800314
Lee, D. B., Peckins, M. K., Miller, A. L., Hope, M. O., Neblett, E. W., Assari, S., … Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Pathways from racial discrimination to cortisol/DHEA imbalance: protective role of religious involvement. Ethnicity & Health, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2018.1520815
Schmidt, C. J., Zimmerman, M. A., & Stoddard, S. A. (2018). A Longitudinal Analysis of the Indirect Effect of Violence Exposure on Future Orientation Through Perceived Stress and the Buffering Effect of Family Participation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 62(1–2), 62–74. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12254
Moore, S. S., Schmidt, C. J., Heinze, J. E., Diemer, M. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). College Status and Trajectories of Perceived Leadership Ability Among Emerging Adults. Emerging Adulthood, 2167696818786407. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696818786407
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Family Structure and Subsequent Anxiety Symptoms; Minorities’ Diminished Return. Brain Sciences, 8(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8060097
Goldstick, J. E., Heinze, J., Ngo, Q., Hsieh, H.-F., Walton, M. A., Cunningham, R. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Perceived Peer Behavior and Parental Support as Correlates of Marijuana Use: The Role of Age and Gender. Substance Use & Misuse, 53(3), 521–531. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2017.1342660
Córdova, D., Heinze, J. E., Hsieh, H.-F., Mistry, R., Salas-Wright, C. P., Cook, S. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Are trajectories of a syndemic index in adolescence linked to HIV vulnerability in emerging and young adulthood? AIDS (London, England), 32(4), 495–503. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001717
Heinze, J. E., Cook, S. H., Wood, E. P., Dumadag, A. C., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Friendship Attachment Style Moderates the Effect of Adolescent Exposure to Violence on Emerging Adult Depression and Anxiety Trajectories. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(1), 177–193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0729-x
Cordova, D., Heinze, J., Hsieh, H.-F., Mistry, R., Salas-wright, C. P., Cook, S. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Are trajectories of psychosocial risk in adolescence linked to HIV vulnerability in emerging and young adulthood? an eighteen-year longitudinal study. AIDS, Publish Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001717
Lee, D. B., Peckins, M. K., Heinze, J. E., Miller, A. L., Assari, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Psychological pathways from racial discrimination to cortisol in African American males and females. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-017-9887-2
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence Predict Adulthood Obesity Among Black Females. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-017-0422-5
Yin, X.-Q., Wang, L.-H., Zhang, G.-D., Liang, X.-B., Li, J., Zimmerman, M. A., & Wang, J.-L. (2017). The promotive effects of peer support and active coping on the relationship between bullying victimization and depression among chinese boarding students. Psychiatry Research, 256, 59–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.037
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Trajectories of Organized Activity Participation Among Urban Adolescents: Associations with Young Adult Outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 45(4), 513–527. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21863
Hsieh, H.-F., Heinze, J. E., Lang, I., Mistry, R., Buu, A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood. Journal of Women’s Health (2002). https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2016.5799
Heinze, J. E., Stoddard, S. A., Aiyer, S. M., Eisman, A. B., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Exposure to violence during adolescence as a predictor of perceived stress trajectories in emerging adulthood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 49, 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2017.01.005
Assari, S., Moazen-Zadeh, E., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks. Frontiers in Public Health, 5, 104. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00104
Pisarska, A., Eisman, A., Ostaszewski, K., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Alcohol and Cigarette Use Among Warsaw Adolescents: Factors Associated With Risk and Resilience. Substance Use & Misuse, 51(10), 1283–1296. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2016.1168442
Córdova, D., Heinze, J. E., Mistry, R., Salas-Wright, C. P., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Ecodevelopmental Trajectories of Family Functioning: Links With HIV/STI Risk Behaviors and STI Among Black Adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 52(7), 1115–1127. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000136
Assari, S., Moghani Lankarani, M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Fear of Neighborhood Violence During Adolescence Predicts Development of Obesity a Decade Later: Gender Differences Among African Americans. Archives of Trauma Research, 5(2), e31475. https://doi.org/10.5812/atr.31475
Cook, S. H., Heinze, J. E., Miller, A. L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Transitions in Friendship Attachment During Adolescence are Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 58(3), 260–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.10.252
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Trajectories of Organized Activity Participation Among Urban Adolescents: An Analysis of Predisposing Factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(1), 225–238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0267-3
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Perceived Neighborhood Safety During Adolescence Predicts Subsequent Deterioration of Subjective Health Two Decades Later; Gender Differences in a Racially-Diverse Sample. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 6(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.170431
Assari, S., Moghani Lankarani, M., Malekahmadi, M. R., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Baseline religion involvement predicts subsequent salivary cortisol levels among male but not female Black youth. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.31790
Wang, J.-L., Zhang, D.-J., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Reslience Theory and its implications for Chinese adolescents. Psychological Reports. https://doi.org/10.2466/16.17.PR0.117c21z8
Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J. E., Choe, D. E., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 44, 191–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.07.017
Assari, S., Moghani Lankarani, M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. (2015). Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence Predicts Salivary Cortisol in Early Adulthood Among Blacks; Sex differences. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13(4), e18041. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.18041
Mistry, R., Heinze, J. E., Cordova, D., Hsieh, H. F., Goldstick, J. E., Aiyer, S. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Transitions in Current Substance Use from Adolescence to Early-Adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(10), 1871–1883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0309-x
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Depressive symptoms, social support, and violence exposure among urban youth: A longitudinal study of resilience. Developmental Psychology, 51(9), 1307–1316. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039501
Buu, A., Dabrowska, A., Heinze, J. E., Hsieh, H.-F., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Gender differences in the developmental trajectories of multiple substance use and the effect of nicotine and marijuana use on heavy drinking in a high-risk sample. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 6–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.015
Hsieh, H.-F., Heinze, J. E., Aiyer, S. M., Stoddard, S. A., Wang, J.-L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Cross-domain influences on youth risky driving behaviors: A developmental cascade analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 38, 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2015.03.002
Assari, S., Smith, J. R., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults. Societies, 5(1), 151–170. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5010151
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Low parental support in late adolescence predicts obesity in young adulthood; Gender differences in a 12-year cohort of African Americans. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, 14, 47. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0176-8
Dziak, J. J., Li, R., Zimmerman, M. A., & Buu, A. (2014). Time-varying effect models for ordinal responses with applications in substance abuse research. Statistics in Medicine, 33(29), 5126–5137. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.6303
Choe, D. E., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Transactional Process of African American adolescents’ family conflict and violent behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence: The Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 24(4), 591–597. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12056
Cordova, D., Heinze, J., Mistry, R., Hsieh, H.-F., Stoddard, S., Salas-Wright, C. P., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Family functioning and parent support trajectories and substance use and misuse among minority urban adolescents: a latent class growth analysis. Substance Use & Misuse, 49(14), 1908–1919. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.935792
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Sex differences in the association between testosterone and violent behaviors. Trauma Monthly, 19(3), e18040. https://doi.org/10.5812/traumamon.18040
Aiyer, S. M., Heinze, J. E., Miller, A. L., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(7), 1066–1079. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0097-8
Hsieh, H. F., Zimmerman, M. A., Xue, Y., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., Wang, Z., & Hou, Y. (2014). Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 84(4), 364–376. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099845
Hurd, N. M., Varner, F. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults. Dev Psychol, 50(7), 1910–1918. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036438
Choe, D. E., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents’ family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood. Dev Psychol, 50(4), 1226–1232. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035199
Hurd, N. M., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Natural mentors, mental health, and substance use: Exploring pathways via coping and purpose. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(2), 190–200. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099361
Hurd, N. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). An analysis of natural mentoring relationship profiles and associations with mentees’ mental health: considering links via support from important others. Am J Community Psychol, 53(1–2), 25–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-013-9598-y
Brenner, A. B., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2013). Neighborhood context and perceptions of stress over time: An ecological model of neighborhood stressors and intrapersonal and interpersonal resources. Am J Community Psychol, 51(3–4), 544–556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-013-9571-9

Books and Book Chapters

Hurd, N. M., Wittrup, A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Role Models. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence (pp. 1–8). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32132-5_230-2
Butler-Barnes, S. T., Hurd, N., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Flint adolescent study: A longitudinal examination of social support and achievement motivational beliefs of African American adolescents. In C. Camp Yeakey, V. L. Sanders Thompson, A. Wells, C. (Ed) Camp Yeakey, V. L. (Ed) Sanders Thompson, & A. (Ed) Wells (Eds.), Urban ills: Twenty-first-century complexities of urban living in global contexts (Vol. 2). (pp. 133–152). Lanham, MD, US: Lexington Books/Rowman & Littlefield.
Zimmerman, M. A., Bingenheimer, J. B., & Behrendt, D. E. (2005). Natural Mentoring Relationships. In D. L. DuBois, M. J. Karcher, D. L. (Ed) DuBois, & M. J. (Ed) Karcher (Eds.), Handbook of Youth Mentoring (pp. 143–157). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
Tarver, D. B., Wong, N. T., Neighbors, H. W., Zimmerman, M. A., Way, N., & Chu, J. (2004). The role of father support in the prediction of suicidal ideation among Black adolescent males. In Adolescent Boys: Exploring Diverse Culture of Boyhood (pp. 144–163). New York, NY: New York University Press.
Zimmerman, M. A., Salem, D. A., & Notaro, P. C. (2000). Make room for daddy II: The positive effects of fathers’ role in adolescent development. In R. D. Taylor & M. C. Wang (Eds.), Resilience across contexts:  Family, work, culture, and community, Chapter 9. (pp. 233–253). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Zimmerman, M. A., Steinman, K. J., & Rowe, K. (1998). Violence among urban African American adolescents: The protective effects of parent support. In X. B. Arriaga & S. Oskamp (Eds.), Addressing community problems: Psychological research and interventions (pp. 78–103). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Zimmerman, M. A., & Arunkumar, R. (1994). Resiliency Research: Implications for Schools and Policy (Vol. 8). Social Policy Report.

Posters and Presentations

Eisman, A., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2013, November). Violence exposure and depressive symptoms among urban youth: A growth curve analysis. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Boston, MA.
Eisman, A. B., Zimmerman, M., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2012, October). Risk and promotive factors associated with violent behavior among urban youth: Consideration of sex differences.  (Poster). Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, San Francisco, CA.
Pingel, E., Ziv, T., Cham, H., & Zimmerman, M. (2012, October). “I ain’t got nowhere to go but up”: Visions of success and struggle among African Americans transitioning into adulthood in Flint, Michigan. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, San Francisco, CA.
Choe, D., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011, November). Transactional Processes of African American adolescents’ family conflict and violent behavior and their effects on mental health during the transition to adulthood (Poster). Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Estrada-Martinez, L. M., Caldwell, C., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011, November). Different life-domain stressors and the development of violent behaviors among African Americans transitioning into adulthood. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Pingel, E., Bauermeister, J. A., Elkington, K. S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011, November). Sexual risk behavior trajectories in adolescence and the tranisition to adulthood: The role of mother and father support. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011, November). Examining the relationship between purpose and meaning in life and alcohol and other drug use in young adulthood. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011, November). Effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on violent behavior among urban adolescents: A longitudinal analysis of Resiliency Theory (Poster). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Brenner, A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011, November). Neighborhood context and perceptions of stress over time: an ecological model of neighborhood stressors and intrapersonal and interpersonal resources and coping. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2011, October). Effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on violent behavior among urban adolescents: A longitudinal analysis of Resiliency Theory (Poster). Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Stoddard, S. A., Zimmerman, M. A., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2011, March). Effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on violent behavior amon urban adolescents: A longitudinal analysis of resiliency theory. Paper presented at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA.
Elkington, K., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2010, November). Parents, peers and sexual risk in African American youth: The role of substance abuse. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Denver, CO.
Hurd, N., & Zimmerman, M. (2010, June). Natural mentors, racial identity and long-term education attainment: Improving our understanding of how mentors promote positive youth outcomes. Presented at the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, Ann Arbor, MI.
Elkington, K., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. (2010, April). Psychological distress, substance use and HIV/STI risk behaviors among youth. Paper presented at the Midyear Meeting of the Society of Public Health  Education and the Prevention Research Centers Program, Atlanta, GA.
Elkington, K., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. (2010, March). Psychological distress, substance use, and HIV/STI risk behaviors in youth. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Scoiety for Research on Adolescence, Philadelphia, PA.
Hurd, N., Zimmerman, M. A., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2010, March). Social influences on African American adolescents’ future orientation: A path to educational attainment. Presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Philadelphia, PA.
Brenner, A., Zimmerman, M., & Caldwell, C. (2009, November). Neighborhood variation in alcohol use for African American and White youth. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Philadelphia, PA.
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M., & Caldwell, C. (2009, November). Condom use among urban youth across the high school years: the role of neighborhood characteristics. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Philadelphia, PA.
Hurd, N., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. (2009, October). Predictors of occupational outcomes among African American emerging adults:  An analysis of positive influences. Poster presented at the 4th Conference on Emerging Adulthood, Atlanta, GA.
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M., & Caldwell, C. (2009, August). Condom use among urban youth across the high school years: the role of neighborhood characteristics. Presented at the Meeting of the International Academy of Sex Research, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Zimmerman, M. (2009, April). Adolescent resilience and empowerment. Keynote presented at the University of Victoria’s Centre for Youth and Society Conference, Victoria, BC.
Zimmerman, M. A. (2008, November). Sex risk behavior in adolescence and the transition to adulthood: Translating research into practice. Invited address presented at the 50th Celebration of the Department of Psychology, Catholic University, Santiago, Chile.
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M., Caldwell, C., Xue, Y., & Gee, G. (2008, August). Sex partner age differences and sex risk behaviors among African American youth. Poster presented at the 2008 International World AIDS Conference, Mexico City, Mexico.
Hurd, N. M., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2008, August). Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience. Poster presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Boston, MA.
Hurd, N., & Zimmerman, M. (2008, March). Natural mentors and adolescent health: A longitudinal analysis of African American youth transitioning into adulthood. Poster presented at the Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting, Chicago, IL.
Hurd, N. M., Zimmerman, M. A., & Xue, Y. (2007, March). Negative adult influences and the protective effects of role models: A study with urban adolescents. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston, MA.
Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005, December). Sexual risk behavior growth trajectories in adolescence and the transition to adulthood: Modeling mother and father support as resilience factors in a predominantly African-American sample. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Philadelphia, PA.