Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, PhD

A photo of Cleo Caldwell, Ph.D.

Professor, Health Behavior & Health Education

Dr. Caldwell is a Professor in the Department of Health Behavior and Health Education and Co-Associate Director of the Program for Research on Black Americans at the University of Michigan. She has published in the areas of help-seeking behaviors and informal social supports among African Americans, the Black church as a social service institution, and race-related socialization and academic achievement among African American youth. Dr. Caldwell is the Principal Investigator for the Fathers and Sons Project.

Publications

Assari, S., Boyce, S., Mistry, R., Thomas, A., Nicholson, H. L., Cobb, R. J., Cuevas, A. G., Lee, D. B., Bazargan, M., Caldwell, C. H., Curry, T. J., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2021). Parents’ Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Children’s Cognitive Performance: Complexities by Race, Ethnicity, and Cognitive Domain. Urban Science (Basel, Switzerland), 5(2), 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci5020046
Assari, S., Boyce, S., Bazargan, M., Thomas, A., Cobb, R. J., Hudson, D., Curry, T. J., Nicholson, H. L., Cuevas, A. G., Mistry, R., Chavous, T. M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2021). Parental Educational Attainment, the Superior Temporal Cortical Surface Area, and Reading Ability among American Children: A Test of Marginalization-Related Diminished Returns. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 8(5), 412. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050412
Schmidt, C. J., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J. E., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2020). Examining contextual and relational factors influencing perceptions of societal and interpersonal mattering among rural youth. Journal of Community Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22401
Boyce, S., Bazargan, M., Caldwell, C. H., Zimmerman, M. A., & Assari, S. (2020). Parental Educational Attainment and Social Environmental of Urban Public Schools in the U.S.: Blacks’ Diminished Returns. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 7(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/children7050044
Assari, S., Boyce, S., Bazargan, M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2020). Place-Based Diminished Returns of Parental Educational Attainment on School Performance of Non-Hispanic White Youth. Frontiers in Education, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.00030
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., Abelson, J. L., & Zimmerman, M. (2019). Violence Victimization Predicts Body Mass Index One Decade Later among an Urban Sample of African American Young Adults: Sex as a Moderator and Dehydroepiandrosterone as a Mediator. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 96(4), 632–643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-019-00360-6
Assari, S., Mistry, R., Lee, D. B., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2019). Perceived Racial Discrimination and Marijuana Use a Decade Later; Gender Differences Among Black Youth. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 7, 78. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00078
Lee, D. B., Hope, M. O., Heinze, J. E., Cunningham, M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Psychological pathway from racial discrimination to the physical consequences of alcohol consumption: Religious coping as a protective factor. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 0(0), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2018.1540956
Lee, D. B., Heinze, J. E., Neblett, E. W., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Trajectories of Racial Discrimination That Predict Problematic Alcohol Use Among African American Emerging Adults. Emerging Adulthood, 6(5), 347–357. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696817739022
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence Predict Adulthood Obesity Among Black Females. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 5(4), 774–781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-017-0422-5
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Family Structure and Subsequent Anxiety Symptoms; Minorities’ Diminished Return. Brain Sciences, 8(6), 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8060097
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2018). Organized Activity Participation and Relational Aggression: The Role of Positive Youth Development. Violence and Victims, 33(1), 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.33.1.91
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Trajectories of Organized Activity Participation Among Urban Adolescents: Associations with Young Adult Outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 45(4), 513–527. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21863
Assari, S., Moazen-Zadeh, E., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2017). Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks. Frontiers in Public Health, 5, 104. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00104
Assari, S., Moghani Lankarani, M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Fear of Neighborhood Violence During Adolescence Predicts Development of Obesity a Decade Later: Gender Differences Among African Americans. Archives of Trauma Research, 5(2), e31475. https://doi.org/10.5812/atr.31475
Hsieh, H.-F., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., Xue, Y., Wang, Z., & Hou, Y. (2016). Cumulative risks and promotive factors for Chinese adolescent problem behaviors. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 43, 71–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2016.01.003
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Trajectories of Organized Activity Participation Among Urban Adolescents: An Analysis of Predisposing Factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(1), 225–238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0267-3
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Perceived Neighborhood Safety During Adolescence Predicts Subsequent Deterioration of Subjective Health Two Decades Later; Gender Differences in a Racially-Diverse Sample. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 6(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.170431
Assari, S., Moghani Lankarani, M., Malekahmadi, M. R., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Baseline religion involvement predicts subsequent salivary cortisol levels among male but not female Black youth. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.31790
Assari, S., Moghani Lankarani, M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. (2015). Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence Predicts Salivary Cortisol in Early Adulthood Among Blacks; Sex differences. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13(4), e18041. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.18041
Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Heinze, J., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Depressive symptoms, social support, and violence exposure among urban youth: A longitudinal study of resilience. Developmental Psychology, 51(9), 1307–1316. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039501
Assari, S., Smith, J. R., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults. Societies, 5(1), 151–170. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc5010151
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Low parental support in late adolescence predicts obesity in young adulthood; Gender differences in a 12-year cohort of African Americans. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, 14, 47. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0176-8
Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Sex differences in the association between testosterone and violent behaviors. Trauma Monthly, 19(3), e18040. https://doi.org/10.5812/traumamon.18040
Hsieh, H. F., Zimmerman, M. A., Xue, Y., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., Wang, Z., & Hou, Y. (2014). Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 84(4), 364–376. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099845
Hurd, N. M., Varner, F. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults. Dev Psychol, 50(7), 1910–1918. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036438
Ellis, K. R., Caldwell, C. H., Assari, S., & De Loney, E. H. (2014). Nonresident African-American Fathers’ Influence on Sons’ Exercise Intentions in the Fathers and Sons Program. Am J Health Promot. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130417-QUAN-179
Kruger, D. J., Aiyer, S. M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Local Scarcity of Adult Men Predicts Youth Assault Rates. Journal of Community Psychology, 42(1), 119–125. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21597
Brenner, A. B., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2013). Neighborhood context and perceptions of stress over time: An ecological model of neighborhood stressors and intrapersonal and interpersonal resources. Am J Community Psychol, 51(3–4), 544–556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-013-9571-9
Caldwell, C. H., Antonakos, C. L., Tsuchiya, K., Assari, S., & De Loney, E. H. (2013). Masculinity as a moderator of discrimination and parenting on depressive symptoms and drinking behaviors among nonresident African-American fathers. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 14(1), 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029105
Zimmerman, M. A., Stoddard, S. A., Eisman, A. B., Caldwell, C. H., Aiyer, S. M., & Miller, A. (2013). Adolescent resilience: Promotive factors that inform prevention. Child Development Perspectives, 7(4), 215–220. http://proxy.lib.umich.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2013-40236-004&site=ehost-live&scope=site marcz@umich.edu
Estrada-Martinez, L. M., Caldwell, C. H., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2012). Stressors in multiple life-domains and the risk for externalizing and internalizing behaviors among african americans during emerging adulthood. J Youth Adolesc, 41(12), 1600–1612. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9778-3
Hurd, N. M., Sanchez, B., Zimmerman, M. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2012). Natural mentors, racial identity, and educational attainment among African American adolescents: exploring pathways to success. Child Dev, 83(4), 1196–1212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01769.x
Pingel, E. S., Bauermeister, J. A., Elkington, K. S., Fergus, S., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2012). Condom Use Trajectories in Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood: The Role of Mother and Father Support. J Res Adolesc, 22(2), 350–366. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00775.x
Brenner, A. B., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2012). The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth. J Youth Adolesc, 42(6), 792–806. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9838-8
Hammond, W. P., Caldwell, C. H., Brooks, C. L., & Bell, L. (2011). Being there in spirit, fire, and mind: Expressive roles among nonresidential African American fathers. Journal of Research on Social Work Practice, 21(3), 308–318. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731510383441
Caldwell, C. H., Bell, L., Brooks, C. L., Ward, J., & Jennings, C. (2011). Engaging nonresident African American fathers in intervention research: What practitioners should know about parental monitoring in nonresident families. Journal of Research on Social Work Practice, 21(3), 298–307. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731510382923
Barnett, T. E., Rowley, S., Zimmerman, M. A., Vansadia, P., & Caldwell, C. (2011). A longitudinal study of household change on African American adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 39(3), 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20434
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2011). Neighborhood disadvantage and changes in condom use among African American adolescents. J Urban Health, 88(1), 66–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-010-9506-9
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Caldwell, C. H., Xue, Y., & Gee, G. C. (2010). What predicts sex partners’ age differences among African American youth? A longitudinal study from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Sex Research, 47(4), 330–344. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490903015850
Caldwell, C. H., Rafferty, J., Reischl, T. M., De Loney, E. H., & Brooks, C. L. (2010). Enhancing Parenting Skills Among Nonresident African American Fathers as a Strategy for Preventing Youth Risky Behaviors. Am J Community Psychol, 45(1–2), 17–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9290-4
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Xue, Y., Gee, G. C., & Caldwell, C. H. (2009). Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(5), 802–813.
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Gee, G. C., Caldwell, C., & Xue, Y. (2009). Work and Sexual Trajectories Among African American Youth. Journal of Sex Research, 46(1), 1–11.
Davis, RN., Caldwell, C., Clark, S. J., & Davis, M. M. (2009). Depressive symptoms in non-resident African American fathers and involvement with their sons. Pediatrics, 124(6), 1611–1618.
Repetto, P. B., Zimmerman, M. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2008). A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Marijuana Use in a Sample of Inner-City African Americans. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18(3), 421–447. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00566.x
Caldwell, C. H., Rafferty, J., De Loney, E. H., & Reischl, T. M. (2008). Practice Notes: Strategies in Health Education: The Flint Fathers and Sons Program. Health Education & Behavior, 35, 155–157.
Xue, Y., Zimmerman, M. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2007). Neighborhood residence and urban youth’s cigarette smoking: The protective role of prosocial activities. American Journal of Public Health, 97(10), 1865–1872.
Bauermeister, J. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Barnett, T. E., & Caldwell, C. H. (2007). Working in high school and adaptation in the transition to young adulthood among African American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(7), 877–890. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2008-01926-003&site=ehost-live
Fergus, S., Zimmerman, M. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2007). Growth trajectories of sexual risk behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. American Journal of Public Health, 97(6), 1096–1101.