The logo for the FYI 3 project.

Project Details


The Flint Youth Injury Study (“FYI”; DA024646) was a prospective cohort study following a high-risk sample of drug-using youth (14-24 yrs.) recruited from the Hurley Medical Center (HMC) ED, the main hospital in Flint, MI. This is an urban, predominantly African American cohort (N = 599) who followed since 2009. The original aims of the FYI study were to study drug use and health services utilization longitudinally.

The Flint Youth Injury Study 3 (FYI 3) serves as an expansion of the original Flint Youth Injury Study by following the original cohort (Generation 1 [G1]; ages 23-33) and enrolling their children (Generation 2 [G2]; ages 5-15). We will be more specifically observing marijuana use and attitudes as it relates to recent marijuana legalization. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Cannabis legalization and associated community factors on Cannabis and other drug risks among the urban, predominantly African-American sample that we have been following since 2009 (G1) and their children (G2). We will apply a socio-ecological developmental framework to examine the effects of recreational Cannabis legalization (RCL) on both G1 and G2 Cannabis use, its antecedents and family factors that may further influence Cannabis use.

We will re-engage the original G1 sample and recruit their children (G2) to participate in this new study. We will survey participants to understand the on-going substance use and risk behaviors of the G1 population where Cannabis is now legal, as well as how RCL combines with individual, social and community-level factors to influence Cannabis use and other risks (e.g., negative parenting; mental health; violence). We will establish baseline Cannabis knowledge, attitudes, exposure and use in the sample of G2 children, as well as assess parenting behaviors and other multilevel risk antecedents for future Cannabis use. We will conduct in-depth interviews with a subsample of participating families to determine how the RCL policy rollout (e.g., state messaging; local ordinances; presence of medical or recreational retailers) affects knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to Cannabis, including its risks/benefits, availability, acceptability, impact on the family and the larger community.

Our specific aims are:

  • Aim 1: Establish a parent/child dyad database from an NIH-funded longitudinal cohort to be used for a larger longitudinal study of the effects of the new Cannabis policy on intergenerational influences.
  • AIM 2: Examine how individual risk and protective factors measured across adolescence and young adulthood predict G1’s current Cannabis use, attitudes toward Cannabis and perceptions of risk, and parenting behaviors associated with Cannabis risk in children.
  • AIM 3: Identify which G1 parenting attitudes and behaviors predict G2 Cannabis use antecedents (both risk and promotive factors) and usage.
  • AIM 4: Conduct quarterly interviews with a subsample of G1/G2 dyads to understand evolving Cannabis-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors as the law is fully implemented.